Financial instruments are recognised in the balance sheet when the Group has become a party to the contractual provisions of the instruments. Financial instruments are classified as liabilities or equity in accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangement. Interest, dividends, gains and losses relating to a financial instrument classified as a liability, are reported as expense or income. Distributions to holders of financial instruments classified as equity are charged directly to equity. Financial instruments are offset when the Group has a legally enforceable right to offset and intends to settle either on a net basis or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.
Other Non-Current Investments
Other non-current investments (other than investments in subsidiaries, associates and investment properties) are stated at cost less allowance for diminution in value. Cost is determined on the weighted average basis while market value is determined based on quoted market values. On disposal of an investment, the difference between the net disposal proceeds and its carrying amount is recognised in the income statement.
Trade receivables are recognised and stated at original invoiced amounts and carried at anticipated realizable values. Bad debts are written off when it is established that they are irrecoverable. Specific allowance is made for known doubtful debts. An estimate is made for doubtful debts based on a review of all outstanding amounts as at the balance sheet date.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand, balances and deposits with licensed financial institutions and fixed income trust funds that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value, net of outstanding bank overdraft.
Trade payables are stated at cost which approximates the fair value of the consideration to be paid in the future for goods and services rendered.
Interest-bearing bank loans and overdrafts are recorded at the amount of proceeds received, net of transaction costs. Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition and construction of plant and equipment are capitalized as part of the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are ready for their intended use. All other borrowing costs are charged to the income statement as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.
Ordinary shares are classified as equity. Dividends payable on ordinary shares are recognised in equity in the period in which they are declared. The transaction costs of an equity transaction, other than in the context of a business combination, are accounted for as a deduction from equity, net of tax. Equity transaction costs comprise only those incremental external costs directly attributable to the equity transaction which would otherwise have been avoided. Cost of issuing equity securities in connection with a business combination is included in the cost of acquisition. When the share capital of the Company is repurchased, the consideration paid, including any attributable transaction costs, is presented as a change in equity. Repurchased shares are classified as treasury shares and presented as a deduction from equity. No gain or loss is recognised in the income statement on the sale, re-issuance or cancellation of treasury shares. Consideration received is presented in the financial statements as a change in equity.
Derivative Financial Instruments
The Group uses derivative financial instruments in the form of forward exchange contracts to hedge its exposure to foreign exchange arising from operating, financing and investing activities. In accordance with its treasury policy, the Group does not hold or issue derivative financial instruments for trading purposes. Derivative financial instruments are not recognised in the financial statements on inception. The underlying foreign currency assets or liabilities are translated at their respective hedged exchange rates and all exchange gains or losses are recognised as income or expense in the income statement in the same period as the exchange differences on the underlying hedged items. Exchange gains and losses arising on contracts entered into as hedges of anticipated future transactions are deferred until the date of such transaction, at which time they are included in the measurement of such transactions.