i. Short term benefits
Wages, salaries, bonuses and social security contributions are recognised as an expense in the year in which the associated services are rendered by employees. Short term accumulating compensated absences such as paid annual leave are recognised when services are rendered by employees that increase their entitlement to future compensated absences. Short term non-accumulating compensated absences such as sick leave are recognised when the absences occur.
ii. Defined contribution plans
Defined contribution plans are post-employment benefit plans under which the Group pays fixed contributions into separate entities or funds and will have no legal or constructive obligation to pay further contributions if any of the funds do not hold sufficient assets to pay all employee benefits relating to employee services in the current and preceding financial years. Such contributions are recognised as an expense in the profit or loss as incurred. As required by law, companies in Malaysia make such contributions to the Employees Provident Fund (“EPF”). Some of the Group’s foreign subsidiaries also make contributions to their respective countries’ statutory pension schemes.
iii. Termination benefits
Termination benefits are payable when employment is terminated before the normal retirement date or whenever an employee accepts voluntary redundancy in exchange for these benefits. The Group recognises termination benefits as a liability and an expense when it is demonstrably committed to either terminate the employment of current employees according to a detailed plan without possibility of withdrawal or providing termination benefits as a result of an offer made to encourage voluntary redundancy. In the case of an offer made to encourage voluntary redundancy, the measurement of termination benefits is based on the number of employees expected to accept the offer. Benefits falling due more than twelve months after balance sheet date are discounted to present value.
iv. Share-based compensation
The Company’s Employee Share Options Scheme (“ESOS”), an equity-settled, share-based compensation plan, allows the Group’s employees to acquire ordinary shares of the Company. As permitted under the transitional provisions of FRS 2: Share-based Payment, no compensation expense is recognised by the Group. When the options are exercised, equity is increased by the amount of the proceeds received.