Associates are those corporations, partnerships or other business entities in which the Group exercises significant influence, but which it does not control. Significant influence is the power of the Group to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of its associates but not the power to exercise control over those policies. Such significant influence generally is reflected by a shareholding of between 20% and 50% of the voting rights in these entities, and that is neither a subsidiary nor an interest in a joint venture.
Investments in associates are initially recognised at cost and accounted for in the consolidated financial statements using the equity method of accounting. The Group’s investment in associates includes goodwill on acquisition, net of any accumulated impairment losses. The policy for the recognition and measurement of impairment losses in associates is in accordance with the policy stated in Note X.
The audited financial statements of the associates are used by the Group in applying the equity method. In the event that audited financial statements are not available, unaudited financial statements prepared by the mangement of the associates are used. Uniform accounting policies are adopted for similar transactions and events in similar circumstances.
Under the equity method, the investment in associate is included in the consolidated balance sheet at cost, adjusted for the Group’s share of post acquisition changes in the net assets of the associate. The Group’s share of the net profit or loss of the associates is recognised in the consolidated income statement, whereas the Group’s share of changes in items recognised directly in the equity of the associate such as reserves and foreign exchage differences, the Group recognises its share of such changes as a component of its equity.
In applying the equity method, unrealised gains and losses on transactions between the Group and the associate are eliminated to the extent of Group’s interest in the associates, and the unrealised losses are eliminated to the extent of the costs that can be recovered.
When the Group’s share of losses in an associate equals or exceeds its interest in the associates, including any other unsecured receivables, the Group’s interest in this associate is reduced to nil and recognition of further losses is discontinued except to the extent that the Group has legal or constructive obligations over such losses.
Associates are equity accounted for in the concolidated financial statements from the date the Group obtain significant influence until the date the Group cease to have significant influence over the associates.
Goodwill arises on acquisition of an associate is included in the carrying amount of the investment in the associate and is not amortised. Any excess of the Group’s share of the net fair value of the associate’s identifiable assets, liabilities and contingent liabilities over the cost of the investment is excluded from the carrying amount of the investment and is instead included as income in the determination of the Group’s share of the associate’s profit or loss in the period in which the investment is acquired. On disposal of such investment, the difference between net disposal proceeds and the carrying amount of the investment in an associate is reflected as a profit or loss on disposal in the consolidated income statement.