An associate is an entity over which the Group and the Company have significant influence and that is neither a subsidiary nor an interest in a joint venture. Significant influence is the power to participate in the financial and operating policy decisions of the investee but is not control or joint control over those policies.
In the Company’s separate financial statements, an investment in associate is stated at cost less impairment losses, if any. An investment in associate is accounted for in the consolidated financial statements using the equity method of accounting. The investment in associate in the consolidated balance sheet is initially recognised at cost and adjusted thereafter for the post acquisition change in the Group’s share of net assets of the investment.
The interest in the associate is the carrying amount of the investment in the associate under the equity method together with any long-term interest that, in substance, form part of the Group’s net interest in the associate. The Group’s share of the profit or loss of the associate during the financial year is included in the consolidated financial statements, after adjustment to align the accounting policies with those of the Group, from the date that significant influence commences until the date that significant influence ceases.
Distributions received from the associate reduce the carrying amount of the investment. Adjustments to the carrying amount may also be necessary for changes in the Group’s proportionate interest in the associate arising from changes in the associate’s equity that have not been recognised in the associate’s profit or loss. Such changes include those arising from the revaluation of property, plant and equipment and from foreign exchange translation differences. The Group’s share of those changes is recognised directly in equity of the Group.
Unrealised gains and losses on transactions between the Group and the associate are eliminated to the extent of the Group’s interest in the associate.
When the Group’s share of losses in the associate equals to or exceeds its interest in the associate, the carrying amount of that interest is reduced to nil and the Group does not recognise further losses unless it has incurred legal or constructive obligations or made payments on its behalf. The most recent available financial statements of the associate are used by the Group in applying the equity method. When the reporting dates of the financial statements are not coterminous, the share of results is arrived at using the latest audited financial statements for which difference in reporting dates is no more than three (3) months. Adjustments are made for the effects of any significant transactions or events that occur between the intervening periods.
Upon disposal of an investment in associate, the difference between the net disposal proceeds and its carrying amount is included in income statements.