Financial instruments are recognised in the balance sheet when the Group has become a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.
Financial instruments are classified as liabilities or equity in accordance with the substance of the contractual arrangement. Interest, dividends and gains and losses relating to a financial instrument classified as a liability, are reported as expense or income. Distributions to holders of financial instruments classified as equity are recognised directly in equity. Financial instruments are offset when the Group has a legally enforceable right to offset and intends to settle either on a net basis or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.
i. Cash and cash equivalents
For the purposes of the cash flow statements, cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand and at bank, deposit at call and short term highly liquid investments which have an insignificant risk of changes in value, net of outstanding bank overdrafts.
ii. Other non-current investments
Non-current investments other than investments in subsidiaries, associates and investment properties are stated at cost less impairment losses. On disposal of an investment, the difference between net disposal proceeds and its carrying amount is recognised in profit or loss.
iii. Short term investments
Short term investments are carried at the lower of cost and market value. On disposal of short term investments, the difference between net disposal and carrying amount is recognised in income statement.
Receivables are carried at anticipated realisable values. Bad debts are written off when identified. An estimate is made for doubtful debts based on a review of all outstanding amounts as at the balance sheet date.
Payables are stated at the fair value of the consideration to be paid in the future for goods and services received.
vi. Interest bearing loans and borrowings
All loans and borrowings are initially recognised at the fair value of the consideration received less directly attributable transaction costs. After initial recognition, interest bearing loans and borrowings are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method.
vii. Equity instruments
Ordinary shares are classified as equity. Dividends on ordinary shares are recognised in equity in the period in which they are declared.
The transaction costs of an equity transaction are accounted for as a deduction from equity, net of tax. Equity transaction costs comprise only those incremental external costs directly attributable to the equity transaction which would otherwise have been avoided.
The consideration paid, including attributable transaction costs on repurchased ordinary shares of the Company that have not been cancelled, are classified as treasury shares and presented as a deduction from equity. No gain or loss is recognised in income statement on the sale, re-issuance or cancellation of treasury shares. When treasury shares are reissued by resale, the difference between the sales consideration and the carrying amount is recognised in equity.
viii. Derivative financial instruments
Derivative financial instruments are not recognised in the financial statements.