i) Short term benefits
Wages, salaries, bonuses and social security contributions are recognised as an expense in the year in which the associated services are rendered by employees. Short term accumulating compensated absences such as paid annual leave are recognised when services are rendered by employees that increase their entitlement to future compensated absence. Short term non-accumulating compensated absences such as sick leave are recognised when the absences occur.
ii) Post-employment benefits
The Group contributes to the Employees Provident Fund, the national defined contribution plan. Such contributions are charged to the income statements in the period to which they relate. Once the contributions have been paid, the Group has no further payment obligations.
iii) Share-based compensation
The Company’s Employees’ Share Option Scheme (“ESOS”), and equity-settled, share-based compensation plan, allows the Group’s employees to acquire ordinary shares of the Company. The total fair value of share options granted to employees is recognised as an expense in the income statement with a corresponding increase in the share option reserve within equity over the vesting period and taking into account the probability that the options will vest. The fair value of share options is measured at grant date, taking into account, if any, the market vesting conditions upon which the options were granted but excluding the impact of any non-market vesting conditions. Non-market vesting conditions are included in assumptions about the number of options that are expected to become exercisable on vesting date.
At each balance sheet date, the Group revises its estimates of the number of options that are expected to become exercisable on vesting date. It recognises the impact of the revision of original estimates, if any, in the income statement, and a corresponding adjustment to equity over the remaining vesting period. The equity amount is recognised in the share option reserve until the option is exercised, upon which it will be transferred to share premium, or until the option expires, upon which it will be transferred directly to retained profit. Under the transitional provisions of FRS 2, this FRS will apply to share options which were granted after day/month/year and had not yet vested on day/month/year. The adoption of this FRS has not resulted in any financial impact to the Group as there were no new shares options issued after day/month/year which remain unvested on day/month/year. The proceeds received net of any directly attributable transaction costs are credited to equitywhen the options are exercised.
iv) Termination benefits
Termination benefits are payable when employment is terminated before the normal retirement date, or whenever an employee accepts voluntary redundancy in exchange for these benefits. The Group recognises termination benefits when it is demonstrably committed to either: terminating the employment of current employees according to a detailed formal plan without possibility of withdrawal; or providing termination benefits as a result of an offer made to encourage voluntary redundancy. Benefits falling due more than 12 months after balance sheet date are discounted to present value.